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Category: Active Directory Attacks

This series details Active Directory attacks you need to know about–how they work, the techniques and tools cyber attackers use to perpetrate these AD attacks, and what you can do to detect, block, and mitigate them.

Setup, Configuration, and Task Execution with Covenant: The Complete Guide

Setup, Configuration, and Task Execution with Covenant: The Complete Guide

In this blog post, we are taking a deeper dive into Covenant. Covenant is one of the latest and greatest Command and Control (C2) Post Exploitation Frameworks which I covered in In my previous blog post. In that post, we discussed Covenant on a high level but now let’s go through the process of configuring and using Covenant to execute payloads on compromised hosts. NOTE: This post demonstrates the capabilities of Covenant in Mid-September 2019. Getting Setup and Starting Covenant…

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Protecting Against DCShadow

Protecting Against DCShadow

What Organizations Can Do to Stop a DCShadow Attack Recently, I came across a post outlining how companies CANNOT effectively defend against a DCShadow attack but instead need to take a reactive approach to identify when it may have occurred by monitoring their environment, and rolling back any unwanted changes once they were identified. Unfortunately, reacting to an incident could mean the damage is already done and a malicious actor has run off with the ‘keys to the kingdom’. The…

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What is a DCShadow Attack and How to Defend Against it

What is a DCShadow Attack and How to Defend Against it

In this blog post, we’ll be covering the DCShadow attack and how we can use StealthDEFEND to detect and respond to this type of attack. DCShadow was the topic of previous STEALTHbits Blog post, so in this post, we’ll start with a review of DCShadow and then focus on how we can DETECT and RESPOND to this attack with StealthDEFEND. Introduction to DCShadow DCShadow is another late-stage kill chain attack that allows an attacker with privileged credentials to register a “rogue” domain controller in order to PUSH changes to a…

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Next-Gen Open Source C2 Frameworks in a Post PSEmpire World: Covenant

Next-Gen Open Source C2 Frameworks in a Post PSEmpire World: Covenant

Rest in Peace PowerShell Empire PowerShell Empire (PSEmpire) is a Command and Control (C2) Post Exploitation Framework that has been discussed in a variety of posts on the STEALTHbits Blog. What is PSEmpire? PSEmpire is a great tool with a wide variety of uses in the Information Security community including learning, red teaming and even more nefarious uses such as being used by the Ryuk Ransomware. Sadly, it has been officially announced the PSEmpire is no longer being supported and development has stopped….

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Detecting Persistence through Active Directory Extended Rights

Detecting Persistence through Active Directory Extended Rights

Today, I came across an interesting article (since posting, the original post has been taken offline) where the author described how an attacker could manipulate the permissions on extended attributes to create persistence once they have compromised an Active Directory domain.  Read the article for a great breakdown of the attack, but here’s a quick summary. Step 1 – Domain Compromise An attacker compromised Domain Admin privileges within Active Directory and wants to make sure they create some backdoors in…

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Lateral Movement Through Pass-the-Cache

Lateral Movement Through Pass-the-Cache

Lateral movement techniques like Pass-the-Hash, Pass-the-Ticket, and Overpass-the-Hash provide attackers with ways to take stolen or compromised credentials and spread out across a network to achieve privilege escalation.  I recently found myself testing some Active Directory attacks from a Kali Linux host, and needed a way to use compromised credentials from this Linux system on my Windows boxes.  Luckily, this is something supported by Mimikatz and surprisingly easy to perform.  This technique, known as Pass-the-Cache, allows an attacker to take…

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Resource-Based Constrained Delegation Abuse

Resource-Based Constrained Delegation Abuse

Abusing RBCD and MachineAccountQuota Delegation is an area that is confusing and complicated for most Active Directory administrators. Unconstrained delegation, constrained delegation, and even resource-based constrained delegation all play a role in not only your Active Directory infrastructure, but also its security posture. For example, unconstrained delegation is very insecure, and can be abused relatively easily. If you’re unfamiliar with the different types of delegation and how they work, I suggest reading harmj0ys Another Word on Delegation as he’s done…

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Honey Token Threat Detection with StealthDEFEND

Honey Token Threat Detection with StealthDEFEND

In this post we will discuss the concept of Honey Pots, and how StealthDEFEND utilizes Honey Tokens in its threat detection to provide an additional line of defense against attackers. Introduction to Honey Pots Wikipedia defines “Honey Pots” as a computer security mechanism set to detect, deflect, or, in some manner, counteract attempts at unauthorized use of information systems. Honey Pots are not a new concept in the realm of Information Security. Implementations of Honeypots in the form of Servers, Databases,…

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Cracking Active Directory Passwords with AS-REP Roasting

Cracking Active Directory Passwords with AS-REP Roasting

While looking at Pass-the-Ticket we explored a tool Rubeus by Harmj0y which can be used to experiment with Kerberos security in Active Directory and explore various attack vectors.  One of the areas I found interesting when testing Rubeus was the different password cracking options it made available.  This includes two primary methods: Kerberoasting and AS-REP Roasting.  The most frightening part of both of these techniques is that they can be performed without any special privileges on the domain, making them…

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ProTip: LDAP Reconnaissance

ProTip: LDAP Reconnaissance

The start of Active Directory attacks, like LDAP Reconnaissance, involves finding vulnerabilities on a network and grabbing “intel” about sensitive accounts like Domain, Enterprise, and Schema Admins. After an attacker initially compromises a system on a network, they will pretty much have no privileges in the domain. This leaves an attacker hungry for more, and with the way Active Directory is designed, they can query objects inside a directory pretty easily. LDAP queries are key in an attacker gaining this…

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